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Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords

  • Editorial | 2024-04-30

  • Perspective | 2024-04-30

    Abstract

    Urban air mobility (UAM) is emerging as an innovative transportation solution for cities. However, the potential noise impact on urban life must be carefully examined. Continuous exposure to UAM noise, with its unique frequency characteristics and temporal variability, may adversely affect citizens’ health by causing sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairmenet, particularly in children. NASA has formed a UAM Noise Working Group to study this issue comprehensively. In Korea, the Seoul Metropolitan Government’s UAM demonstration project is expected to accelerate related research and development. Scientific analysis, including noise measurement, prediction modeling, and health impact assessment, must be prioritized. Measures to minimize noise should be established based on this evidence, such as optimizing flight modes, developing noise reduction technologies, and establishing new noise management standards. Transparency and social consensus are crucial throughout this process. Expert review and open communication with civil society are necessary to address related concerns. Sharing demonstration project results and providing opportunities to experience UAM noise through digital twin simulations can help address public concerns and build social consensus. Proactively and scientifically tackling noise issues is essential for the sustainable development and successful integration of UAM into daily life.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Soyoung Park1 , Gökçe Nur Ayaz1 , Heewon Kim1 , Hyungkee Yoon1 , Taehong Kwon1 , Sungkyoon Kim1,2*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 83-92

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.83
    Abstract

    Background: In this study, we investigate the rapid increase in environmental odors and notable rise in civil complaints near Dorim Stream in the Gwanak-gu area of Seoul.
    Objectives: This study aims to identify the causal compounds responsible for environmental odors in the Dorim Stream and investigate the structural characteristics of the stream that influence odor generation.
    Methods: The research methodology involved setting up 41 sampling points, selecting panels for direct sensory evaluation to assess odor intensity, measuring dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulfide concentrations, and using all-in-one low-temperature desorption gas chromatography (ATD-GC) and thermal desorptiongas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) analysis to identify odor-causing compounds.
    Results: The evaluation of Dorim Stream revealed that in areas with complete meandering, there were lower dissolved oxygen levels (4.5±2.67 mg/L) and higher odor intensity (4.0±0.92), while in partially meandering sections, higher dissolved oxygen levels (7.8±1.15 mg/L) and lower odor intensity (2.8±1.06) were observed. Hydrogen sulfide levels measured with sensors increased with higher temperatures, especially in the afternoon hours (12:00~14:00). Acetaldehyde was the dominant odor compound detected in both the Bonglim Bridge (0.4 ppm) area and Guro Bridge area (0.867 ppm), with concentrations more than twice as high near Guro Bridge. Odor-causing compounds identified by TD-GC/MS indicated a pungent, sulfurous odor in the Guro Bridge area and a musty odor in the Bonglim Bridge area.
    Conclusions: This study categorizes and analyzes the sources of odor in Dorim Stream in Seoul based on meandering patterns and the distribution of sewage facilities, highlighting the potential odor issues associated with combined sewage systems and sewer junctions and suggesting policy improvements.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Sun-Jung Kim* , Ji-Young Park , Seung-Ho Kim , Min-Hwa Lim , Ji-Yong Yu , Kyu-Sung Han , Se-Il Park , Gwangyeob Seo , Gwangwoon Cho

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 93-101

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.93
    Abstract

    Background: As pollutants caused by non-point sources flow into rivers, river water quality monitoring for fecal pollution is becoming increasingly important.
    Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of microbial communities in the Yeongsangang River water system and sewage treatment plants in Gwangju and to evaluate their antibiotic resistance.
    Methods: In the experiment, samples were distributed to five selective media at each point and then cultured for 18 to 24 hours. When bacteria were observed, they were sub-cultured by size and shape and identified using MALDI-TOF MS equipment. When identification was completed, 17 types of antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK II equipment, focusing on gram-negative dominant species among the identified strains.
    Results: During the study period, a total of 266 strains were isolated from 39 samples. Gram-positive bacteria were 37 strains in four genera, or 13.9% of the total, and Gram-negative bacteria were 229 strains in 23 genera, or 86.1% of the total. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of 23 strains, the major dominant species, showed that one strain (4.3%) was resistant to only one antibiotic, and two strains (8.7%) were 100% susceptible to the 17 antibiotics tested. The other 20 strains (87.0%) were multidrug resistant bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics. There were various types of multidrug resistance. Among them, penicillin and cephalosporin series showed the highest resistance.
    Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it was found that the bacterial community structure changed according to regional and environmental factors, and it was judged that continuous research such as genetic analysis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in natural rivers is necessary.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Ji-In Kim , Hyejin Shin , Yujeong Jeong , Haesong Sher , Gitaek Oh , Yonghoo Park , Sungkyoon Kim*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 102-112

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.102
    Abstract

    Background: Despite the rise in the number of domestic indoor climbing gyms, there is a lack of specific hygiene standards and research on the holds installed in them. Holds can act as vectors for microbial transmission through the hands, posing a risk of infectious diseases, especially with damaged skin.
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the contamination level and species of microorganisms on holds according to the management methods practiced in indoor climbing gyms and identify effective strategies for reducing microbial contamination.
    Methods: We investigated factors that may influence microbial contamination of holds, including hold management methods, user information, and hygiene management at three climbing gyms in Seoul. A total of 72 holds were sampled, 18 for each management method of brushing, high-pressure washing, and ethanol disinfection. Samples were cultured on LB and blood agar at 37°C for 48 hours to calculate CFUs. PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA was carried out to identify microorganisms. Dunn-Bonferroni was employed to see the microbial reduction effect of the management method and the difference in microbial contamination by management method and climbing gym.
    Results: As a result of microbial identification, microorganisms such as Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus, which were derived from various environments such as skin and soil, were discovered on the surface of the climbing hold. Among the discovered microorganisms, some species had potential pathogenic properties that could cause food poisoning, gastrointestinal disease, bacteremia, and sepsis. All hold management methods were effective in reducing microorganisms (p<0.05), with ethanol disinfection being the most effective (p<0.001).
    Conclusions: Our results indicate that there are potential pathogens on holds that demand thorough management for microbial prevention. Proposed methods include regular brushing and ethanol disinfection in addition to high-pressure washing with long cycles, which are the existing forms of hold management. Further studies on shoe management are advised to curb soil-derived microorganisms.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Sujin Lee , Jongseo Park , Sunmi Kim* , Myungwon Seo*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 113-124

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.113
    Abstract

    Background: The increasing need to minimize animal testing has sparked interest in alternative methods with more humane, cost-effective, and time-saving attributes. In particular, in silico-based computational toxicology is gaining prominence. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a biological map depicting toxicological mechanisms, composed of molecular initiating events (MIEs), key events (KEs), and adverse outcomes (AOs). To understand toxicological mechanisms, predictive models are essential for AOP components in computational toxicology, including molecular structures.
    Objectives: This study reviewed the literature and investigated previous research cases related to AOP and in silico methodologies. We describe the results obtained from the analysis, including predictive techniques and approaches that can be used for future in silico-based alternative methods to animal testing using AOP.
    Methods: We analyzed in silico methods and databases used in the literature to identify trends in research on in silico prediction models.
    Results: We reviewed 26 studies related to AOP and in silico methodologies. The ToxCast/Tox21 database was commonly used for toxicity studies, and MIE was the most frequently used predictive factor among the AOP components. Machine learning was most widely used among prediction techniques, and various in silico methods, such as deep learning, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics, were also utilized.
    Conclusions: We analyzed the current research trends regarding in silico-based alternative methods for animal testing using AOPs. Developing predictive techniques that reflect toxicological mechanisms will be essential to replace animal testing with in silico methods. In the future, since the applicability of various predictive techniques is increasing, it will be necessary to continue monitoring the trend of predictive techniques and in silico-based approaches.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Abstract

    Background: The Korea Risk Information Surveillance System (K-RISS) was developed to enable the early detection of food and drug safety-related issues. Its goal is to deliver real-time risk indicators generated from ongoing food and drug risk monitoring. However, the existing K-RISS system suffers under several limitations.
    Objectives: This study aims to augment K-RISS with more detailed indicators and establish a severity standard that takes into account structural changes in the daily time series of K-RISS values.
    Methods: First, a Delphi survey was conducted to derive the required weights. Second, a control chart, commonly used in statistical process controls, was utilized to detect outliers and establish caution, attention, and serious levels for K-RISS values. Furthermore, Bai and Perron’s method was employed to determine structural changes in K-RISS time series.
    Results: The study incorporated ‘closeness to life’ and ‘sustainability’ indicators into K-RISS. It obtained the necessary weights through a survey of experts for integrating variables, combining indicators by data source, and aggregating sub K-RISS values. We defined caution, attention, and serious levels for both average and maximum values of daily K-RISS. Furthermore, when structural changes were detected, leading to significant variations in daily K-RISS values according to different periods, the study systematically verified these changes and derived respective severity levels for each period.
    Conclusions: This study enhances the existing K-RISS system and introduces more advanced indicators. K-RISS is now more comprehensively equipped to serve as a risk warning index. The study has paved the way for an objective determination of whether the food safety risk index surpasses predefined thresholds through the application of severity levels.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Tae Hyun Park1,2 , Ji Hwan Song3 , Sa Ho Chun4 , Hee Rae Joe1 , Pil Jun Yoon1,5 , Ho Yeon Kang1 , Myeong Seon Ku1 , Jin Hyeok Son1 , Cheol Min Lee2*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 138-145

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.138
    Abstract

    Background: Appropriateness issues have emerged regarding the non-application of hazardous substance safety standards for items classified as ‘other textile products’.
    Objectives: Testing for formaldehyde (HCHO) and risk assessment were conducted on ‘other textiles products’ to provide reference data for promoting product safety policies.
    Methods: Testing was conducted on five items (102 products) classified as ‘other textile products’ according to relevant standards (textile products safety standards), and the risk of each product was assessed using the evaluation methodologies of the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) and European Chemical Agency (ECHA).
    Results: Out of the 102 products tested, HCHO was detected above the quantification limit in five. Based on these results, the screening risk assessment indicated that three products exceeded the criteria. Upon reassessing the emission and transfer rates of products exceeding the criteria, it was confirmed that there were no instances of exceeding the criteria.
    Conclusions: Risk assessment results can be used as supporting data for non-application of hazardous substance standards. However, it is deemed necessary to transition towards a management approach based on risks in order to addressing emerging trends such as convergence/new products.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Sang-Hoon Yoon1* , So-Young Kim2 , Eun Cho1 , Tae-Hui Nam1 , Jin-Hwan Park1 , Hwa-Jin Kong1 , Ki-Won Lee1 , Gwang-Yeob Seo1 , Jeong-Hun Park3 , Kyoung-Woo Min1

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 146-156

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.146
    Abstract

    Background: Children who use playground facilities are exposed to potential risks due to the high concentration of heavy metals contained in the finishing materials of facilities in children's playgrounds.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of heavy metals in the finishing materials of outdoor children's playgrounds where harmful heavy metals exist in Gwangju and to conduct human risk assessment for children and adults by age to find the risks and limitations.
    Methods: The bottom and top layers of double-painted paint were peeled off and collected together from the finishing materials of children's play facilities such as slides, swings, and seesaws in 147 children's parks in Gwangju. Heavy metals were analyzed using ICP-OES, etc., and human risk assessment was performed using the concentrations of heavy metals.
    Results: Based on 1.0E-04, which requires legal regulation, CTE was found to pose a carcinogenic risk for preschool children and no carcinogenic risk for the rest of the age groups. However, RME showed that both men and women of all ages had a carcinogenic risk. For reference, when the carcinogenic risk was based on 1.0E-06, CTE was found to pose a carcinogenic risk from infants to elementary school students, and RME was found to have a carcinogenic risk in all age groups. It was judged that there is a non-carcinogenic risk if the non-carcinogenic risk exceeds 1 based on the hazard index (HI) 1. In CTE, there was no non-carcinogenic risk, and RME for preschooler males (1.49E+00) and females (1.56E+00) were found to have non-carcinogenic risk.
    Conclusions: This study was meaningful in that it examines the differences in the current management of heavy metals concentration standards and potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to the human body and discusses the relationship between heavy metals and human health effects.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Ji Won Kim1,2,3 , Yujeong Jin1 , Yun-Hee Choi1,4 , Habyeong Kang1,5 , Hyunsoo Kim1 , Wonhee Jo1 , Seongeun Choi1 , Wonho Choi1 , Yoon-Hyeong Choi1,2,5*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 157-167

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.157
    Abstract

    Background: Several previous studies have shown that commuting is a source of stress for undergraduate students. However, few studies have investigated the effect of commuting on academic stress among undergraduate students, and there has been little awareness of the environmental impact of commuting.
    Objectives: To evaluate the associations between commute type and/or time and academic stress among undergraduate students in South Korea, focusing on environmental sustainability.
    Methods: We conducted an online survey and obtained information on commute types, commute times, and academic stress from 510 undergraduate students aged ≥19 years. Academic stress was comprised of five sub-categories of stress, and total academic stress ranged from 5 to 25 points. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the associations between commute type and commute time and academic stress. Furthermore, the students were grouped into 21 categories based on their transportation mode for commuting. CO2 emission factors per each commuting category were calculated using the transportation type’s CO2 emission data from previous studies. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to confirm the correlation between CO2 emission factors and total academic stress.
    Results: Students using home-to-school transportation without transfers (vs. walking) showed a significantly higher total academic stress of 2.19 points (95% CI: 0.58, 3.80). In contrast, students using school-to-home transportation without transfers (vs. walking) showed a significantly lower total academic stress of 1.96 points (95% CI: –3.55, –0.38). Moreover, students using transportation with lower CO2 emission factors had lower academic stress scores (home-to-school: correlation coefficient = 0.507, p<0.001; school-to-home: correlation coefficient = 0.491, p<0.001).
    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both commute type and time are significantly associated with academic stress among South Korean undergraduate students. When students select environmentally-friendly transportation, they may not only improve their mental health but also improve climate resilience.

  • Editorial | 2024-02-28

  • Invited article / Review | 2024-02-28

    Abstract

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent international organization that advances the science of radiological protection for the public benefit, particularly by providing recommendations and guidance on all aspects of protection against ionizing radiation. The ICRP is a community of more than 380 globally-recognized experts in radiological protection science, policy, and practice from more than 50 countries. As of January 2024, the ICRP is comprised of a Main Commission, the Scientific Secretariat, four Standing Committees, and 30 Task Groups under the four committees. The ICRP has released well over one hundred publications on all aspects of radiological protection. Most address a particular area within radiological protection, but a handful of the publications, the so-called fundamental recommendations, describe the overall system of radiological protection. The system for radiological protection is based on the current understanding of the science of radiation exposure and its effects along with value judgements. The ICRP offers recommendations to regulatory and advisory agencies and provides advice to management and professional staff with responsibilities for radiological protection. Legislation in most countries adheres closely to ICRP recommendations. The International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) International Basic Safety Standards are based heavily on ICRP recommendations. ICRP recommendations form the core of radiological protection standards, legislation, programs, and practice worldwide.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Jaemin Woo1 , Jihun Shin1* , Gihong Min1 , Dongjun Kim1 , Kyunghwa Sung2 , Mansu Cho1 , Byunglyul Woo1 , Wonho Yang1,2*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(1): 6-15

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.1.6
    Abstract

    Background: People’s activities have been restricted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes in activity patterns may lead to a decrease in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Additionally, the level of population exposure to PM2.5 may be changed.
    Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the impact of population movement and meteorological factors on the distribution of PM2.5 concentrations before and after the outbreak of COVID-19.
    Methods: The study area was Guro-gu in Seoul. The research period was selected as January to March 2020, a period of significant population movement changes caused by COVID-19. The evaluation of the dynamic population was conducted by calculating the absolute difference in population numbers between consecutive hours and comparing them to determine the daily average. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were estimated for each grid using ordinary kriging in Python. For the population exposure assessment, the population-weighted average concentration was calculated by determining the indoor to outdoor population for each grid and applying the indoor to outdoor ratio to the ambient PM2.5 concentration. To assess the factors influencing changes in the ambient PM2.5 concentration, a statistical analysis was conducted, incorporating population mobility and meteorological factors.
    Results: Through statistical analysis, the correlation between ambient PM2.5 concentration and population movement was positive on both weekends and weekdays (r=0.71, r=0.266). The results confirmed that most of the relationships were positive, suggesting that a decrease in human activity can lead to a decrease in PM2.5 concentrations. In addition, when population-weighted concentration averages were calculated and the exposure level of the population group was compared before and after the COVID-19 outbreak, the proportion of people exceeding the air quality standard decreased by approximately 15.5%.
    Conclusions: Human activities can impact ambient concentrations of PM2.5, potentially altering the levels of PM2.5 exposure in the population.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Dongjun Kim1 , Gihong Min1* , Jihun Shin1 , Youngtae Choe1 , Kilyoong Choi2 , Sang Hyo Sim3 , Wonho Yang1*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(1): 16-24

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.1.16
    Abstract

    Background: Indoor PM2.5 concentrations in residential houses can be affected by various factors depending on the season. This is because not only do the climate characteristics depend on the season, but the activity patterns of occupants are also different.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare factors affecting indoor PM2.5 concentrations in apartments and detached houses in Daegu according to seasonal changes.
    Methods: This study included 20 households in Daegu, South Korea. The study was conducted during the summer (from July 10 to August 10, 2023) and the autumn (from September 11 to October 9, 2023). A sensor-based instrument for PM2.5 levels was installed in the living room of each residence, and measurements were taken continuously for 24 hours at intervals of one minute during the measurement period. Based on the air quality monitoring system data in Daegu, outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using ordinary kriging (OK) in Python. In addition, the indoor activities of the occupants were investigated using a time-activity pattern diary. The affecting factors of indoor PM2.5 concentration were analyzed using multiple regression analysis.
    Results: Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations of the residences during summer were 15.27±11.09 μg/m3 and 11.52±7.56 μg/m3, respectively. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations during autumn were 13.82±9.61 μg/m3 and 9.57±5.50 μg/m3, respectively. The PM2.5 concentrations were higher in summer compared to autumn both indoors and outdoors. The primary factor affecting indoor PM2.5 concentration in summer was occupant activity. On the other hand, during the autumn season, the primary affecting factor was outdoor PM2.5 concentration.
    Conclusions: Indoor PM2.5 concentration in residential houses is affected by occupant activity such as the inflow of outdoor PM2.5 concentration, cooking, and cleaning, as found in previous studies. However, it was revealed that there were differences depending on the season.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Jee Hyun Rho1 , Byoung-Gwon Kim1,2* , Jung-Yeon Kwon1 , Hyunji Ju2 , Na-Young Kim2 , Hyoun Ju Lim2 , Seungho Lee1,2 , Byeng-Chul Yu3 , Suejin Kim4 , Young-Seoub Hong1,2

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(1): 25-35

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.1.25
    Abstract

    Background: There are concerns about the health effects of various environmental pollution exposures among residents living near coal-fired power plants (CFPP).
    Objectives: This study attempted to compare the concentrations of heavy metals in blood and urine and those of urinary volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites according to the residential separation distance.
    Methods: Participants in the study totaled 334 people who have lived for more than 10 years in areas within 10 km of a CFPP. The separation distance was analyzed in quartiles by dividing it into Q1 (88 people), Q2 (89 people), Q3 (89 people), and Q4 (68 people). We explained the purpose of this study to the participants and collected blood and urine after obtaining signatures on a participation agreement.
    Results: The study participants were 102 males (30.5%) and 232 females (69.5%), with an average age of 71. The average length of residence and distance were 43.8 years and 4,800 meters. The geometric mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Hg in blood and As and Cd in urine were respective 1.35 μg/dL, 1.43 μg/L, 3.16 μg/L. They were 167.88 μg/g for creatinine and 1.58 μg/g creatinine. The metabolite concentrations of VOCs were 50.67 μg/g creatinine in t, t-muconic acid (t, t-MA), 10.73 μg/g creatinine in benzyl mercapturic acid, 317.05 μg/g creatinine in phenylglyoxylic acid, 123.55 μg/g creatinine in methylhippuric acid, and 190.82 μg/g creatinine in mandelic acid. The concentration of Pb in the blood and Cd and t, t-MA in the urine of residents within affected area of the CFPP showed statistically significant differences among distance groups.
    Conclusions: The concentration of urinary VOCs metabolites, especially t, t-MA, differed according to the distance groups of residents within the affected area of CFPP (p<0.05).

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Eun-Ah Park1 , Seungyeon Eo1 , Yerin Oh1 , Na-Youn Park1 , Myoungho Lee2 , Younglim Kho1*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(1): 36-42

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.1.36
    Abstract

    Background: The use of scented candles and incense sticks, both of which are household products that are burned for indoor deodorization and calming effects, is increasing. Fine dust has been designated as a group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect air pollution and can cause diseases.
    Objectives: This study aims to determine the effect on indoor air quality by measuring PM2.5 and VOCs generated when burning scented candles and incense sticks.
    Methods: Scented candles and incense sticks were selected as household products to burn. As for the target sample, top-selling products (five types of scented candles, five types of incense sticks) were purchased online. The PM2.5 concentration according to time was measured immediately next to the sample and three meters away from each other in an enclosed space using a real-time aerosol photometer. VOCs were collected as samples under the same conditions using Tenax tubes and were quantitatively analyzed by TD-GC/MS.
    Results: In the case of scented candles, the concentration of PM2.5 did not increase during combustion and after being extinguished by placing a cover on the candle. For the incense sticks, the concentration of PM2.5 averaged 1,901.27 μg/m3. After burning scented candles and incense sticks, some VOCs concentrations were increased such as ethyl acetate and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene).
    Conclusions: Therefore, when using scented candles, extinguishment by placing a cover on the candle can be expected to reduce PM2.5. It is advisable to avoid using incense sticks because PM2.5 concentration increases from the start of combustion.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Abstract

    Background: Exposure assessment is an important part of risk assessment for consumer products. Exposure models are used when estimating consumer exposures by considering exposure routes, subjects, and circumstances. These models differ based on their tiers, types, and target populations. Consequently, exposure estimates may vary between models.
    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the results of different exposure models using identical exposure factors.
    Methods: Chemical exposure from consumer products was calculated using four consumer exposure assessment models: Targeted Risk Assessment 3.1, Consumer Exposure Model 2.1 (CEM), ConsExpo web 1.1.1, and the Korean Exposure Algorithm (primary and detailed) issued by the Ministry of Environment, No. 972 (MOE). The same exposure factors were used in each model to calculate inhalation and dermal exposures to acetaldehyde, d-limonene, and naphthalene in all-purpose cleaners, leather coating sprays, and sealants.
    Results: In the results, TRA provided the highest estimate. Generally, MOE (detailed), CEM and ConsExpo showed lower exposures. The inhalation exposure for leather coating spray showed the largest differences between models, with differences reaching up to 1.2×107 times. Since identical inputs were used for the calculations, it is likely that the models significantly influenced the estimated results.
    Conclusions: Despite using the same exposure factors to calculate dermal and inhalation exposures, the results varied substantially based on the model’s exposure algorithm. Therefore, selecting an exposure model for assessing consumer products should be done with careful consideration.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Abstract

    Background: There is growing international recognition of the need for improvements to national chemical management systems for hazardous chemicals. The European Union has recently introduced the concept of ‘essential uses’ as a new approach to the management hazardous chemicals by limiting their uses.
    Objectives: This paper examines the concept of essential uses in chemical management and how to apply it through a case study of essential use. This approach is distinct from the current chemical management system, but seeks to improve its potential benefits by effectively restricting or gradually decreasing the use of hazardous substances.
    Methods: The concept of essential uses was introduced by reviewing the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Cousins’s three essentiality categories applied to PFAS, restriction options assessed in the PFAS restriction proposal under REACH, and the California Safer Consumer Products regulations prioritizing 6PPD in motor vehicle tires. Based on these essential uses concepts for PFAS and 6PPD, uses of benzene were classified in accordance with the essential uses approach for products using benzene in South Korea.
    Results: The essential use concept is able to manage the restriction and authorization of substances of concern through essential uses and non-essential uses and the feasible substitution of uses and substances.
    Conclusions: If the concept and methodology of essential uses are clearly established, they can be expected to shift the national chemical management paradigm from regulating substances to limiting uses under the existing substance management system.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Su-Jeong Yoon , Hui-Su Pyeon , Yoon-Hee Lee , So-Jung Park , Kyung-Ja Kang , Eun-Seon Hur , Il-Hyung Jeong , Beom-Ho Kim , Sun-Mok Kwon*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(1): 66-72

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.1.66
    Abstract

    Background: Vibrio vulnificus is a serious opportunistic human pathogen that has a worldwide distribution in a variety of marine and estuarine environments.
    Objectives: For this reason, we investigated the distribution of Vibrio vulnificus in coastal areas of Gyeonggi-do Province from 2018 to 2022. Also, we analyzed the correlation between V. vulnificus leading to infection and two marine environmental factors (water temperature and salinity).
    Methods: We collected a total of 266 samples from six coastal area points (i.e., seawater, mudflats). Specimens were isolated using selective plating media and isolated strains were identified by a VITEK 2 system. To find the relevance of the isolation rates of V. vulnificus and number of cases of V. vulnificus infection, we summarized the data on 48 cases of V. vulnificus infection from the open data of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency.
    Results: Among the 266 samples taken during the investigation period, 47 strains were isolated, and the separation rates of V. vulnificus were 17.7%. The monthly isolation rates of V. vulnificus were ranked in the order of August (53.8%), September (33.3%), June (28.6%), and July (21.1%). There was a positive correlation with the temperature of seawater, but salinity was not significant. The number of cases of V. vulnificus infection reported in Gyeonggi-do Province were 18 (37.5%) in September, 14 (29.2%) in August, and eight (16.7%) in October. The proportion was 83.3%. It was relevant to the isolation rates of V. vulnificus in the marine environmental sources.
    Conclusions: Our data showed that the number of V. vulnificus infection cases could be affected by changes in the distribution of V. vulnificus due to rise the temperature of seawater in the marine environment.

  • Original Article | 2024-02-28

    Abstract

    Background: Career preparation behavior is a challenge among nursing students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nursing students’ adaptation to a non-face-to-face educational environment, lack of interaction with others, and fear of infectious disease may affect career preparation behavior.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence the career preparation behavior in the non-face-to-face educational environment caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Methods: Data were collected in October 2022 from 130 nursing students from a college in City A. A total of 119 questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, a one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and stepwise multiple regression.
    Results: The findings show that major satisfaction had a significant positive correlation with career preparation behavior (r=0.56, p<0.001). Nursing professionalism showed a significant positive correlation with career preparation behavior (r=0.57, p<0.001). The factors influencing career preparation behavior included major satisfaction, nursing professionalism, and satisfaction with clinical practice. Nursing professionalism was the most influential factor (β=0.35), followed by major satisfaction (β=0.33). Together they had an explanatory power of 37%.
    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that nursing college students who experienced the COVID-19 pandemic should search for ways to increase their major satisfaction and nursing professionalism programs should be increased to improve career preparation behavior.

The Korean Society of Environmental Health

Vol.50 No.2
April, 2024

pISSN 1738-4087
eISSN 2233-8616

Frequency: Bimonthly

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What is Most Keyword?

  • It is most registrated keyword in articles at this journal during for 2 years.

Aims and Scope

Journal of Environmental Health Sciences is an official journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Health. Abbreviated title is ‘J Environ Health Sci’ . This journal was launched in February 1974. The mission of Journal of Environmental Health Sciences is to promote research, policy, education, and practice in the field of environmental health by publishing papers of high scientific quality. All of the manuscripts are peer-reviewed. The journal is issued six times a year (February, April, June, August, October, and December) and the articles published in the Journal are indexed and abstracted in Korea Citation Index (KCI). Full text is freely available from: http://www.kseh.org. Circulation number of print copies is approximately 1,400. This journal is supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies (KOFST) Grant funded by the Korean Government. +More

ExposureAssessment

Toxicology

Epidemiology

Risk Assessment

Management

Air Pollution

Measurement& Analysis

Food Safety& Microbiology

OccupationalHealth

Engineering & Treatment

Policy Or Others