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Ex) Article Title, Author, Keywords

  • Editorial | 2024-06-30

  • Original Article | 2024-06-30

    Jun-Hyun Lim* , Pil-Su Kim , Yong-Hee Han , Jeong Kim , Sang-Jin Choi

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(3): 169-180

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.3.169
    Abstract

    Background: CAPSS missing evaporate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from liquid cargo loading and unloading at ports. It needs to be supplemented to improve air quality management and allow more effective policy formulation.
    Objectives: In this study, the VOC emissions from the loading and unloading of liquid cargo at ports, which are not included in CAPSS, were estimated. The results of this study were compared and analyzed with the emission levels as described by CAPSS, confirming the need for managing VOC emissions from the loading and unloading of liquid cargo.
    Methods: Methodology provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was applied to estimate the VOC emissions from the loading and unloading of liquid cargo at ports. The types of liquid cargo loaded at unloaded at ports are diverse, but for this study emissions were estimated for 37 VOCs designated by the Ministry of Environment.
    Results: The estimated results for VOC emissions from liquid cargo loading and unloading at domestic ports was 112,079 tons/yr, which was confirmed to be 11% of the known CAPSS emissions. The highest emissions were found from the loading and unloading of naptha, and the port with the highest emissions was Ulsan Port.
    Conclusions: The results of the estimated VOC emissions from liquid cargo loading and unloading at ports confirmed the high emission levels. To protect the health of port workers and nearby residents, it is essential to manage the emission sources and undertake continuous research.

  • Original Article | 2024-06-30

    Hyunji Ju1,2 , Seungho Lee1,2* , Minjung Kim3* , Gabeen Lee1,2 , Young-Seoub Hong1,2

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(3): 181-190

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.3.181
    Abstract

    Background: Air pollutants have been reported to have harmful effects on human health. Busan is a vulnerable area in terms of air quality due to the installation of various industrial complexes, particularly the port industry. However there is limited research data on the ambient air quality of residential areas near ports and industrial complexes.
    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the quarterly levels of air pollutants near industrial complexes and ports and to identify trends and characteristics of air pollutant exceedances.
    Methods: Air measurements were conducted quarterly. The measured air pollutants included O3, SO2, CO, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5. PM10 and PM2.5 were measured using BAM-1020 equipment, while O3, SO2, CO, and NO2 were measured using AP-370 Series equipment. The quarterly concentration levels of air pollutants were determined, and the influence of precipitation and commuting hours on fine particulate matter was examined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to determine if there was significance between the concentrations of fine particulate matter during commuting hours and non-commuting hours.
    Results: The concentrations of air pollutants were generally higher in the first and second quarters. Furthermore, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 tended to decrease continuously following consecutive rainfall, with concentrations at the end of rainfall periods lower than those observed at the beginning. The frequency of exceeding average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 was higher on weekdays. Moreover, the average concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 during weekday commuting hours were higher compared to noncommuting hours.
    Conclusions: The concentrations of air pollutants in the survey area were found to be higher than the overall average in Busan. Based on this study, continuous air quality monitoring is necessary for residential areas near industrial complexes and ports. For further research, health biomonitoring of residents in these areas should be conducted to assess their exposure levels.

  • Original Article | 2024-06-30

    Jae-Hee Min1,2 , Byoung-Gwon Kim1,2* , Hyunji Ju1,2 , Na-Young Kim1,2 , Yong-Sik Hwang3 , Seungho Lee1,2 , Young-Seoub Hong1,2

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(3): 191-200

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.3.191
    Abstract

    Background: Busan is a rapidly industrializing city with many mixed residential and industrial areas. Fine dust emissions from mobile pollution sources such as ships and vehicles are particularly high in Busan.
    Objectives: This study analyzed the spatial distribution of air pollutants over the past three years and identified the impact of air pollutants through mobile source data in Busan.
    Methods: We obtained air pollutant data on fine particulate matter (PM10), ultrafine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfurous acid gas (SO2), and ozone (O3) for the last three years (source: airkorea.or.kr) and analyzed the spatial distribution using SAS 9.4 and Surfer 23. For the mobile pollutant data, we used CCTV data from major intersections in Busan to identify truck and car traffic, and visualized traffic density with QGIS.
    Results: The analysis of the concentration of air pollutants over three years (2020~2022) showed that all were lower than the annual environmental standards with the exception of PM2.5. PM10 and PM2.5 were found to be highly concentrated in the western part of the area, while NO2 was high in the port area of Busan and SO2 was high in the western part of the area and near the new port of Busan. In the case of O3, it was high in the eastern part of the city. The traffic volume of freight vehicles by intersection was concentrated in the West Busan area, and the traffic volume for all cars was also confirmed to be concentrated at “Mandeok Intersection” located in the West Busan area.
    Conclusions: This study was conducted to determine the relationship between air pollutants emitted from motor vehicles and the distribution of air pollutants in Busan. The spatial distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 correlates with traffic volume, while high concentrations of SO2 and NO2 near the port are associated with ship emissions.

  • Original Article | 2024-06-30

    Abstract

    Background: Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in sunscreen products and have been identified as an emerging contaminant. Organic UV filters co-exist with multiple components, but their mixture toxicity remains largely unknown.
    Objectives: We investigated the toxicity of single and binary mixtures of commonly used UV-filters using the human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cell line.
    Methods: After exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of avobenzone (AVO), homosalate (HS), octisalate (OS), octinoxate (OMC), and octocrylene (OC), the levels of testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were measured. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for the E2 of the individual substances were used to determine the mixture effect of four binary combinations: OMC+AVB, OMC+HS, OMC+OS, and OMC+OC. The synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects of the mixture were determined by calculating toxic units (TU). To examine the mechanism of mixture toxicity, eight genes involved in steroidogenesis were analyzed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction.
    Results: The significant increase in E2 in H295R cells exposed to AVO, HS, OS, OMC, and OC suggest an estrogenic effect of the tested UV-filters. A significant decrease in T was observed in cells exposed to HS and OS. EC50 values for E2 increase were 105 nM for AVO, 110 nM for HS, 120 nM for OS, 55 nM for OMC, and 80 nM for OC. Both binary mixtures consisting of OMC+HS and OMC+OS have synergistic effects.
    Conclusions: Our results showed that five types of UV-filter substances increase E2 in H295R cells. We examined the mixture toxicity in terms of increased estrogenicity and confirmed that E2 significantly increased when OMC was mixed with a salicylate-based UV-filters. These findings highlight the importance of determining the impact of UV filter mixtures.

  • Original Article | 2024-06-30

    Abstract

    Background: 2-Ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP) is widely used as a flame-retardant plasticizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride, adhesives, and food packaging. This chemical has been frequently detected in water, sediment, and indoor environments, and its lipophilicity raises concerns about bioaccumulation.
    Objectives: In this study, the effects of EHDPP on the development, behavioral changes, and growth hormone (GH) endocrine system of zebrafish larvae were investigated.
    Methods: Fertilized embryos were exposed to various concentrations (control, solvent control, 0.07, 0.7, 7, 70, and 700 μg/L) of EHDPP for 96 h. Developmental toxicity endpoints were observed daily. Behavioral changes under light-dark-light conditions and changes in hormones and genes related to GH/insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) axis were determined.
    Results: Significant decreases in survival, body length and moving distance were observed in zebrafish larvae exposed to 70 and 700 μg/L EHDPP. The concentrations of GH and IGF-1 were significantly decreased in zebrafish larvae exposed to 70 and 700 μg/L EHDPP. This change was well supported by changes in the transcription of genes involved in GH, IGF, IGF receptors, and IGF binding proteins.
    Conclusions: Our observations showed that exposure to 70 and 700 μg/L EHDPP could disrupt the feedback circuits of the GH/IGFs axis, ultimately leading to developmental toxicity, hypoactivity, and mortality.

  • Original Article | 2024-06-30

    Sung Ho Hwang1 , Seunhon Ham2 , Hyoung-Ryoul Kim3 , Hyunchul Ryu4 , Jinsoo An5 , JinHa Yoon6 , Chungsik Yoon1,7 , Naeun Lee8 , Sangman Lee9 , Jaehwan Lee10 , Se Young Kwon11 , Jaepil Chang11 , Kwonchul Ha12*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(3): 221-228

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.3.221
    Abstract

    Background: Social interest is increasing due to frequent accidents caused by chemicals in the electronics industry.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to present a management plan by evaluating the exposure characteristics of dichloromethane (DCM), trichloromethane (TCM), and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), which are high-risk substances to which people may be exposed in the electronics industry in South Korea.
    Methods: To investigate the handling companies and status of the hazardous chemicals DCM, TCM, and TMAH, the handling status of the three substances was classified based on electronics industry-related codes from the 2019 Work Environment Survey (Chemical Handling and Manufacturing) data with work environment measurement results for five years.
    Results: DCM, TCM, and TMAH are commonly used as cleaning agents in the electronics industry. For DCM, it was found that all work environment measurement results from 2018 to 2021 but not 2022 exceeded the exposure standard.
    Conclusions: Identifying the distribution channels of hazardous chemicals is an intervention point that can reduce exposure to hazardous chemicals. It requires management through tracking systems such as unique verification numbers at the import and manufacturing stages, and proper cultivation of and related support for handling chemicals by business managers.

  • Editorial | 2024-04-30

  • Perspective | 2024-04-30

    Abstract

    Urban air mobility (UAM) is emerging as an innovative transportation solution for cities. However, the potential noise impact on urban life must be carefully examined. Continuous exposure to UAM noise, with its unique frequency characteristics and temporal variability, may adversely affect citizens’ health by causing sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cognitive impairmenet, particularly in children. NASA has formed a UAM Noise Working Group to study this issue comprehensively. In Korea, the Seoul Metropolitan Government’s UAM demonstration project is expected to accelerate related research and development. Scientific analysis, including noise measurement, prediction modeling, and health impact assessment, must be prioritized. Measures to minimize noise should be established based on this evidence, such as optimizing flight modes, developing noise reduction technologies, and establishing new noise management standards. Transparency and social consensus are crucial throughout this process. Expert review and open communication with civil society are necessary to address related concerns. Sharing demonstration project results and providing opportunities to experience UAM noise through digital twin simulations can help address public concerns and build social consensus. Proactively and scientifically tackling noise issues is essential for the sustainable development and successful integration of UAM into daily life.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Soyoung Park1 , Gökçe Nur Ayaz1 , Heewon Kim1 , Hyungkee Yoon1 , Taehong Kwon1 , Sungkyoon Kim1,2*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 83-92

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.83
    Abstract

    Background: In this study, we investigate the rapid increase in environmental odors and notable rise in civil complaints near Dorim Stream in the Gwanak-gu area of Seoul.
    Objectives: This study aims to identify the causal compounds responsible for environmental odors in the Dorim Stream and investigate the structural characteristics of the stream that influence odor generation.
    Methods: The research methodology involved setting up 41 sampling points, selecting panels for direct sensory evaluation to assess odor intensity, measuring dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulfide concentrations, and using all-in-one low-temperature desorption gas chromatography (ATD-GC) and thermal desorptiongas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) analysis to identify odor-causing compounds.
    Results: The evaluation of Dorim Stream revealed that in areas with complete meandering, there were lower dissolved oxygen levels (4.5±2.67 mg/L) and higher odor intensity (4.0±0.92), while in partially meandering sections, higher dissolved oxygen levels (7.8±1.15 mg/L) and lower odor intensity (2.8±1.06) were observed. Hydrogen sulfide levels measured with sensors increased with higher temperatures, especially in the afternoon hours (12:00~14:00). Acetaldehyde was the dominant odor compound detected in both the Bonglim Bridge (0.4 ppm) area and Guro Bridge area (0.867 ppm), with concentrations more than twice as high near Guro Bridge. Odor-causing compounds identified by TD-GC/MS indicated a pungent, sulfurous odor in the Guro Bridge area and a musty odor in the Bonglim Bridge area.
    Conclusions: This study categorizes and analyzes the sources of odor in Dorim Stream in Seoul based on meandering patterns and the distribution of sewage facilities, highlighting the potential odor issues associated with combined sewage systems and sewer junctions and suggesting policy improvements.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Sun-Jung Kim* , Ji-Young Park , Seung-Ho Kim , Min-Hwa Lim , Ji-Yong Yu , Kyu-Sung Han , Se-Il Park , Gwangyeob Seo , Gwangwoon Cho

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 93-101

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.93
    Abstract

    Background: As pollutants caused by non-point sources flow into rivers, river water quality monitoring for fecal pollution is becoming increasingly important.
    Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of microbial communities in the Yeongsangang River water system and sewage treatment plants in Gwangju and to evaluate their antibiotic resistance.
    Methods: In the experiment, samples were distributed to five selective media at each point and then cultured for 18 to 24 hours. When bacteria were observed, they were sub-cultured by size and shape and identified using MALDI-TOF MS equipment. When identification was completed, 17 types of antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed using VITEK II equipment, focusing on gram-negative dominant species among the identified strains.
    Results: During the study period, a total of 266 strains were isolated from 39 samples. Gram-positive bacteria were 37 strains in four genera, or 13.9% of the total, and Gram-negative bacteria were 229 strains in 23 genera, or 86.1% of the total. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of 23 strains, the major dominant species, showed that one strain (4.3%) was resistant to only one antibiotic, and two strains (8.7%) were 100% susceptible to the 17 antibiotics tested. The other 20 strains (87.0%) were multidrug resistant bacteria resistant to two or more antibiotics. There were various types of multidrug resistance. Among them, penicillin and cephalosporin series showed the highest resistance.
    Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it was found that the bacterial community structure changed according to regional and environmental factors, and it was judged that continuous research such as genetic analysis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria present in natural rivers is necessary.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Ji-In Kim , Hyejin Shin , Yujeong Jeong , Haesong Sher , Gitaek Oh , Yonghoo Park , Sungkyoon Kim*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 102-112

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.102
    Abstract

    Background: Despite the rise in the number of domestic indoor climbing gyms, there is a lack of specific hygiene standards and research on the holds installed in them. Holds can act as vectors for microbial transmission through the hands, posing a risk of infectious diseases, especially with damaged skin.
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the contamination level and species of microorganisms on holds according to the management methods practiced in indoor climbing gyms and identify effective strategies for reducing microbial contamination.
    Methods: We investigated factors that may influence microbial contamination of holds, including hold management methods, user information, and hygiene management at three climbing gyms in Seoul. A total of 72 holds were sampled, 18 for each management method of brushing, high-pressure washing, and ethanol disinfection. Samples were cultured on LB and blood agar at 37°C for 48 hours to calculate CFUs. PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA was carried out to identify microorganisms. Dunn-Bonferroni was employed to see the microbial reduction effect of the management method and the difference in microbial contamination by management method and climbing gym.
    Results: As a result of microbial identification, microorganisms such as Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus, which were derived from various environments such as skin and soil, were discovered on the surface of the climbing hold. Among the discovered microorganisms, some species had potential pathogenic properties that could cause food poisoning, gastrointestinal disease, bacteremia, and sepsis. All hold management methods were effective in reducing microorganisms (p<0.05), with ethanol disinfection being the most effective (p<0.001).
    Conclusions: Our results indicate that there are potential pathogens on holds that demand thorough management for microbial prevention. Proposed methods include regular brushing and ethanol disinfection in addition to high-pressure washing with long cycles, which are the existing forms of hold management. Further studies on shoe management are advised to curb soil-derived microorganisms.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Sujin Lee , Jongseo Park , Sunmi Kim* , Myungwon Seo*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 113-124

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.113
    Abstract

    Background: The increasing need to minimize animal testing has sparked interest in alternative methods with more humane, cost-effective, and time-saving attributes. In particular, in silico-based computational toxicology is gaining prominence. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a biological map depicting toxicological mechanisms, composed of molecular initiating events (MIEs), key events (KEs), and adverse outcomes (AOs). To understand toxicological mechanisms, predictive models are essential for AOP components in computational toxicology, including molecular structures.
    Objectives: This study reviewed the literature and investigated previous research cases related to AOP and in silico methodologies. We describe the results obtained from the analysis, including predictive techniques and approaches that can be used for future in silico-based alternative methods to animal testing using AOP.
    Methods: We analyzed in silico methods and databases used in the literature to identify trends in research on in silico prediction models.
    Results: We reviewed 26 studies related to AOP and in silico methodologies. The ToxCast/Tox21 database was commonly used for toxicity studies, and MIE was the most frequently used predictive factor among the AOP components. Machine learning was most widely used among prediction techniques, and various in silico methods, such as deep learning, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics, were also utilized.
    Conclusions: We analyzed the current research trends regarding in silico-based alternative methods for animal testing using AOPs. Developing predictive techniques that reflect toxicological mechanisms will be essential to replace animal testing with in silico methods. In the future, since the applicability of various predictive techniques is increasing, it will be necessary to continue monitoring the trend of predictive techniques and in silico-based approaches.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Abstract

    Background: The Korea Risk Information Surveillance System (K-RISS) was developed to enable the early detection of food and drug safety-related issues. Its goal is to deliver real-time risk indicators generated from ongoing food and drug risk monitoring. However, the existing K-RISS system suffers under several limitations.
    Objectives: This study aims to augment K-RISS with more detailed indicators and establish a severity standard that takes into account structural changes in the daily time series of K-RISS values.
    Methods: First, a Delphi survey was conducted to derive the required weights. Second, a control chart, commonly used in statistical process controls, was utilized to detect outliers and establish caution, attention, and serious levels for K-RISS values. Furthermore, Bai and Perron’s method was employed to determine structural changes in K-RISS time series.
    Results: The study incorporated ‘closeness to life’ and ‘sustainability’ indicators into K-RISS. It obtained the necessary weights through a survey of experts for integrating variables, combining indicators by data source, and aggregating sub K-RISS values. We defined caution, attention, and serious levels for both average and maximum values of daily K-RISS. Furthermore, when structural changes were detected, leading to significant variations in daily K-RISS values according to different periods, the study systematically verified these changes and derived respective severity levels for each period.
    Conclusions: This study enhances the existing K-RISS system and introduces more advanced indicators. K-RISS is now more comprehensively equipped to serve as a risk warning index. The study has paved the way for an objective determination of whether the food safety risk index surpasses predefined thresholds through the application of severity levels.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Tae Hyun Park1,2 , Ji Hwan Song3 , Sa Ho Chun4 , Hee Rae Joe1 , Pil Jun Yoon1,5 , Ho Yeon Kang1 , Myeong Seon Ku1 , Jin Hyeok Son1 , Cheol Min Lee2*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 138-145

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.138
    Abstract

    Background: Appropriateness issues have emerged regarding the non-application of hazardous substance safety standards for items classified as ‘other textile products’.
    Objectives: Testing for formaldehyde (HCHO) and risk assessment were conducted on ‘other textiles products’ to provide reference data for promoting product safety policies.
    Methods: Testing was conducted on five items (102 products) classified as ‘other textile products’ according to relevant standards (textile products safety standards), and the risk of each product was assessed using the evaluation methodologies of the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) and European Chemical Agency (ECHA).
    Results: Out of the 102 products tested, HCHO was detected above the quantification limit in five. Based on these results, the screening risk assessment indicated that three products exceeded the criteria. Upon reassessing the emission and transfer rates of products exceeding the criteria, it was confirmed that there were no instances of exceeding the criteria.
    Conclusions: Risk assessment results can be used as supporting data for non-application of hazardous substance standards. However, it is deemed necessary to transition towards a management approach based on risks in order to addressing emerging trends such as convergence/new products.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Sang-Hoon Yoon1* , So-Young Kim2 , Eun Cho1 , Tae-Hui Nam1 , Jin-Hwan Park1 , Hwa-Jin Kong1 , Ki-Won Lee1 , Gwang-Yeob Seo1 , Jeong-Hun Park3 , Kyoung-Woo Min1

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 146-156

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.146
    Abstract

    Background: Children who use playground facilities are exposed to potential risks due to the high concentration of heavy metals contained in the finishing materials of facilities in children's playgrounds.
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration of heavy metals in the finishing materials of outdoor children's playgrounds where harmful heavy metals exist in Gwangju and to conduct human risk assessment for children and adults by age to find the risks and limitations.
    Methods: The bottom and top layers of double-painted paint were peeled off and collected together from the finishing materials of children's play facilities such as slides, swings, and seesaws in 147 children's parks in Gwangju. Heavy metals were analyzed using ICP-OES, etc., and human risk assessment was performed using the concentrations of heavy metals.
    Results: Based on 1.0E-04, which requires legal regulation, CTE was found to pose a carcinogenic risk for preschool children and no carcinogenic risk for the rest of the age groups. However, RME showed that both men and women of all ages had a carcinogenic risk. For reference, when the carcinogenic risk was based on 1.0E-06, CTE was found to pose a carcinogenic risk from infants to elementary school students, and RME was found to have a carcinogenic risk in all age groups. It was judged that there is a non-carcinogenic risk if the non-carcinogenic risk exceeds 1 based on the hazard index (HI) 1. In CTE, there was no non-carcinogenic risk, and RME for preschooler males (1.49E+00) and females (1.56E+00) were found to have non-carcinogenic risk.
    Conclusions: This study was meaningful in that it examines the differences in the current management of heavy metals concentration standards and potential carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to the human body and discusses the relationship between heavy metals and human health effects.

  • Original Article | 2024-04-30

    Ji Won Kim1,2,3 , Yujeong Jin1 , Yun-Hee Choi1,4 , Habyeong Kang1,5 , Hyunsoo Kim1 , Wonhee Jo1 , Seongeun Choi1 , Wonho Choi1 , Yoon-Hyeong Choi1,2,5*

    J Environ Health Sci. 2024; 50(2): 157-167

    https://doi.org/10.5668/JEHS.2024.50.2.157
    Abstract

    Background: Several previous studies have shown that commuting is a source of stress for undergraduate students. However, few studies have investigated the effect of commuting on academic stress among undergraduate students, and there has been little awareness of the environmental impact of commuting.
    Objectives: To evaluate the associations between commute type and/or time and academic stress among undergraduate students in South Korea, focusing on environmental sustainability.
    Methods: We conducted an online survey and obtained information on commute types, commute times, and academic stress from 510 undergraduate students aged ≥19 years. Academic stress was comprised of five sub-categories of stress, and total academic stress ranged from 5 to 25 points. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the associations between commute type and commute time and academic stress. Furthermore, the students were grouped into 21 categories based on their transportation mode for commuting. CO2 emission factors per each commuting category were calculated using the transportation type’s CO2 emission data from previous studies. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to confirm the correlation between CO2 emission factors and total academic stress.
    Results: Students using home-to-school transportation without transfers (vs. walking) showed a significantly higher total academic stress of 2.19 points (95% CI: 0.58, 3.80). In contrast, students using school-to-home transportation without transfers (vs. walking) showed a significantly lower total academic stress of 1.96 points (95% CI: –3.55, –0.38). Moreover, students using transportation with lower CO2 emission factors had lower academic stress scores (home-to-school: correlation coefficient = 0.507, p<0.001; school-to-home: correlation coefficient = 0.491, p<0.001).
    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both commute type and time are significantly associated with academic stress among South Korean undergraduate students. When students select environmentally-friendly transportation, they may not only improve their mental health but also improve climate resilience.

The Korean Society of Environmental Health

Vol.50 No.3
June, 2024

pISSN 1738-4087
eISSN 2233-8616

Frequency: Bimonthly

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Aims and Scope

Journal of Environmental Health Sciences is an official journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Health. Abbreviated title is ‘J Environ Health Sci’ . This journal was launched in February 1974. The mission of Journal of Environmental Health Sciences is to promote research, policy, education, and practice in the field of environmental health by publishing papers of high scientific quality. All of the manuscripts are peer-reviewed. The journal is issued six times a year (February, April, June, August, October, and December) and the articles published in the Journal are indexed and abstracted in Korea Citation Index (KCI). Full text is freely available from: http://www.kseh.org. Circulation number of print copies is approximately 1,400. This journal is supported by the Korean Federation of Science and Technology Societies (KOFST) Grant funded by the Korean Government. +More

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